2nd Tac. Air Force [V. 1 - Spartan to Normandy, June 1943 - by C. Shores, et. al., PDF

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A great number of quantum information applications have been developed in the last few years. I will make no attempt to review the very many ideas about how to use quantum phenomena for information processing. 3. In later chapters I will investigate many characteristics of these three applications, with an emphasis on finding out why they are better than their classical counterparts, and what they can tell us about quantum theory. I will also discuss the feasibility of experimentally implementing some instances of the first two applications.

How closely they resemble the original state. The third qubit is not a clone; it is present to make possible the unitary that creates the two clones. If it were possible to find U such that η = 1 in eq. 11), then we would have a perfect cloning machine. An optimal UQCM can be found by obtaining a unitary U that maximises η and the fidelity of the clones with respect to the original state: 1 η 1 F = ψin |ρout |ψin = η + (1 − η) = + . 12) CHAPTER 4. QUANTUM INFORMATION APPLICATIONS 35 The fidelity, as defined above, gives the probability that the clones will pass a test designed to check whether they are equal to |ψin .

If she wants to send a zero, she projects her qubit along a certain direction m0 in the Bloch sphere, otherwise she projects along CHAPTER 4. QUANTUM INFORMATION APPLICATIONS 34 a second direction m1 . Alice’s measurement effectively projects Bob’s qubit along one of two possible directions, m0 or m1 . If Bob has a perfect cloning machine, he can make a large number of copies of his state and do measurements on them to distinguish these two possibilities with high accuracy. This would enable him to learn which measurement Alice performed, resulting in a faster-than-light communication of one bit from Alice to Bob.

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2nd Tac. Air Force [V. 1 - Spartan to Normandy, June 1943 - June 1944] by C. Shores, et. al.,

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