By Jonathan L. Wharton (auth.)
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Extra resources for A Post-Racial Change Is Gonna Come: Newark, Cory Booker, and the Transformation of Urban America
He won reelection in 1990, 1994, and 1998 and established a signiﬁcant political machine largely due to these urban policies. James even won a State Senate seat as it was legal to hold two elected ofﬁces in New Jersey. Many Newarkers recognized and more often revered the experience and political power James wielded in City Hall. Private sector interests and urban policy professionals also recognized the James machine and his policy approaches. “For many years, Newark symbolized for an entire nation the malaise which has plagued urban America,” states Silvio Laccetti.
171 After several months, the state legislature allowed the city to collect a one percent payroll tax on Newark businesses and six new tax levies. The state also gave the city $15 million in aid, but the rest of the money would have to come from Newarkers. These tax proposals, however, also had to be approved by the city council. Considering the hurdles the mayor faced with the council, this proposal brought the city council and mayor into conﬂict once again. Council members argued that they were never consulted on these proposals, and they at ﬁrst rejected the plan.
Race was already a polarizing factor before the riots, but race became a central ﬂashpoint in the city’s politics after the riots. 115 City Hall did little to address tensions between communities, so separatist politics ﬁlled the political vacuum in Newark. ”116 Local citizen groups employed racial, even violent, tactics against integration. ”117 Community leaders like Imperiale radicalized Newark’s racial politics and challenged state and federal initiatives that were trying to address social problems in Black communities.
A Post-Racial Change Is Gonna Come: Newark, Cory Booker, and the Transformation of Urban America by Jonathan L. Wharton (auth.)