By Geoff Layton
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Additional resources for Access to History. Democracy and Dictatorship in Germany 1919-63
36 | Democracy and Dictatorship in Germany 1919–63 The extreme right in theory In contrast to Marxist socialism, the extreme right did not really have an alternative organised ideology. It was simply drawn together by a growing belief in the following: Anti-Marxism Opposition to the ideology of Karl Marx. Authoritarianism A broad term meaning government by strong nondemocratic leadership. Nationalism Grew from the national spirit to unify Germany in the nineteenth century. Supported a strong policy to embrace all German-speakers in eastern Europe.
The cost of paying reparations (set at £6600 million in 1921). • The growing increase in prices. 9 against the US dollar, while the prices of basic goods increased nearly four-fold. • The increase in national debt to 144,000 million marks by 1919 compared with 5000 million marks in 1914. Signiﬁcantly, Germany had always depended on its ability to export to achieve economic growth. However, between 1914 and 1918 world trade had collapsed and even after 1919 it remained very sluggish. Summary diagram: The economic background Germany’s economic background Economic strengths Economic problems caused by war • • • • • • • • Resources Industrial base Population – educated Banking Loss of land National debt Reparations Increasing prices – fall of the mark World economic difficulties 2 | The Causes of the German Inﬂation Why did Germany suffer hyper-inﬂation?
Rhineland was to be demilitarised from the French frontier to a line 32 miles east of the Rhine. ) Plebiscite A vote by the people on one speciﬁc issue – like a referendum. Anschluss Usually translated as ‘union’. In the years 1919–38, it referred to the paragraph in the Treaty of Versailles that outlawed any political union between Germany and Austria, although the population was wholly German. Mandates The name given by the Allies to the system created in the Peace Settlement for the supervision of all the colonies of Germany (and Turkey) by the League of Nations.
Access to History. Democracy and Dictatorship in Germany 1919-63 by Geoff Layton