America by Design: Science, Technology, and the Rise of by David F. Noble PDF

By David F. Noble

ISBN-10: 0195026187

ISBN-13: 9780195026184

"An terribly targeted and heavily argued exam of the institutional units that got here to hyperlink administration and engineering."--The New Republic

"One of the simplest books of the final decade....It has that infrequent stability: quiet, cumulative energy with bolts of lightning each few pages."--William Appleman Williams, Oregon country University

"One of the phenomenal works of radical social technology of the 1970s."--Monthly Review

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Although the Bell people were able to overcome initial competition from Western Union in 1878, they were soon confronted with rival telephone manufacturing and service companies which sprang up everywhere between 1879 and 1893. S. 11 The life of a patent is seventeen years, after which time the invention becomes public domain. No one understood this fact better than Theodore N. Vail, who became general manager of the National Bell Telephone Company in 1879. From the outset he undertook to “occupy the field,” as he termed it, so as to ensure that the Bell company would outlive its original patents.

5 percent of their combined business. Thus yet another means of patent and market control had been developed: corporate patent-pooling agreements. 10 The emergence of the electrical communications industry during the same period similarly involved the expansion of some companies, primarily through strategies of patent monopoly, at the expense of others. The electromagnetic telegraph, patented by Samuel F. B. Morse in 1837, had become commonplace by the time Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Thomas Watson began investigating the possibilities of sending several messages over the same wire by perfecting the multiple telegraph.

The early pioneers in arc lighting were therefore also pioneers in the development of better and cheaper sources of current, primarily through improvements upon Faraday’s dynamo of 1831. The major breakthroughs, technically speaking, came in the 1870s. The dynamo developed by Charles F. Brush fared the best in a comparative test held by the Franklin Institute in 1877, and Brush went on to make improvements in the arc light, setting up the California Electric Light Company and the Brush Electric Company, in 1879 and 1881, respectively.

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America by Design: Science, Technology, and the Rise of Corporate Capitalism by David F. Noble


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