By Jørgen Eilenberg (auth.), J. EILENBERG, H.M.T. HOKKANEN (eds.)
Biological keep an eye on is likely one of the such a lot promising equipment for keep watch over of pests (including vectors), ailments and weeds. during this e-book ecological and societal points are for the 1st time handled jointly. In an ecological technique the purpose is to judge the importance of sure organic houses like biodiversity and normal habitats. additionally, you will need to see organic keep watch over from an natural (or ecological) farming standpoint. In a societal technique phrases like ‘consumer’s attitude’, ‘risk perception’, ‘learning and schooling’ and ‘value triangle’ are recognized as major for organic creation and human welfare.
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The chapters during this ebook have been constructed from a number of the lectures awarded at a sym posium on the XX foreign Congress of Entomology held in Florence, Italy in August 1996. the aim of the symposium used to be to debate the impression of evolving smooth agricultural landscapes at the insect species, of either financial and ecological significance, that make the most of that habitat.
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Additional resources for An Ecological and Societal Approach to Biological Control
J. 1995. Benefits and risks of classical biological control. In: Hokkanen, H. M. T. and Lynch, J. M. (eds), Biological Control: Benefits and Risks. Cambridge Univ. , 53-63. , and Meikle, W. 1999. Evaluation of results. Economics of biological control. In: Bellows, T. S. and Fischer, T. W. (eds), Handbook of Biological Control. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, USA, 243-252. Hokkanen, H. M. T. and Hajek, A. E. (eds) 2003. Environmental Impact of Microbial Insecticides: Need and Methods for Risk Assessment.
Because predators and parasites are not considered as pesticides, they are not listed individually in the annexes. The IBS list in appendix 2 ‘…release of parasites, predators …’. The Codex guidelines mention ‘…release of predators and parasites…’ in Annex 1, section A 6. g. hedges, nesting sites, release of predators)’. 206 (a) ‘augmentation or introduction of predators or parasites of the pest species’. In conclusion, the use of predators and parasites is not only allowed, but even recommended by all these standards.
During the invasive phase of fire blight, some countries allowed the use the antibiotic streptomycine, while organic farmers avoided this synthetic and problematic substance. Simultaneously, researchers worked hard to find alternatives to streptomycine. , 2002; Richter & Fischer, 2002). , 1999). , 2002). Today, products like Serenade® or Biopro® with B. subtilis as the active ingredient are registered and used by fruit growers to prevent fire blight. 5. Limits of biocontrol in organic apple production Eilenberg et al.
An Ecological and Societal Approach to Biological Control by Jørgen Eilenberg (auth.), J. EILENBERG, H.M.T. HOKKANEN (eds.)