About The Product
Published via the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the Antarctic examine Series.
In a 1971 medical Committee on Antarctic examine document that reviewed polar contrasts in sea ice, Lyn Lewis and Willy Weeks made the next remark: "People who research sea ice within the Arctic Basin are frequently asked in the event that they have ever studied ice in Antarctica, and so they solution 'why trouble, it is the standard stuff." Noting this used to be "fortunately precise to a substantial extent," they further "It is obvious that destiny paintings will count significantly at the logistics amenities to be had to permit floor observations past the short ice facet in any respect seasons of the yr. of virtually equivalent significance often is the improvement of tools and recording gear suited to use within the polar atmosphere" (Lewis, E. L., and W. F. Weeks, Sea Ice: a few Polar Contrasts, in, Antarctic Ice and Water Masses, edited through G. Deacon, medical Committee on Antarctic study, Cambridge, 23-34, 1971).
Lewis and Weeks made no particular point out of Earth-orbiting satellites, on which the 1st passive microwave sensor grew to become operational in December 1972. lower than a yr later the enormous Weddell Polynya was once saw for the 1st time. might be greater than the other improvement, this unforeseen function illustrated the capability to vastly extend our wisdom of sea ice during the software of spaceborne distant sensing. concurrently, it acted as a catalyst for an important raise within the point of study.
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Additional resources for Antarctic Sea Ice: Physical Processes, Interactions and Variability
This is particularly important because most snow depth measurements are below 35 cm. As noted above, the individual brightnesstemperatures show little correlation for lower snow depths. 9 cm. Both the correlation coefficient of and the standard deviationof the linear fits are quite sensitiveto single outliers. 74 forG/•icHe . , 1992]. 77 forG/•iVce MARKUS AND CAVALIERI. ,•,(,3 7V) , , , i 220 . 2. CC is the correlation coefficient,and •r the standard deviation of a linear regressionfit in cm. lationcoefficients fortheTBice differences areabout regression coefficients varyonlya little.
The largesterror sourcein ice concentrationretrievalsis the presenceof new and youngice types. These ice typesare interpretedby the algorithmas a mixture of openwater and consolidated first-yearice. Ice concentration is underestimated if there is a significant amountof new and youngice within a footprint. The 2o E ,o, 15 10 5 . i .... 185 i .... 190 i .... 195 i .... 200 • .... 205 210 sensitivity of the snow depth retrievals to ice concenDoy 1992 tration variability was investigated as follows.
Chang et al. andKd'nziet al. foundthe bestcor- relation between in-situ snow depth and brightness temperature difference at horizontal polarization, whereasHallikainen and Jolma[1986,1992]found a higher correlation using vertical polarization data. •%'ø •' INDIAN OCEAN WEDDELL SEA SECTOR WEDDELL Nevertheless,19-37 GHz combinationswere superior to combinations of other channels at either polariza- QUEEN MAUD LAND tion. Snow particles act as scatterersof microwaveradiation. Rangoet al.
Antarctic Sea Ice: Physical Processes, Interactions and Variability